First, the somatic cell’s genetic material is duplicated which is then followed by the separation of the somatic cell into two daughter cells. Endorphin hormones are released to increase concentration and relief pain to focus on the delivery of offspring. Trusted & used by 367 NSW schools. 1 marks = A factor that distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction (genetic variation, number of parents, mitosis vs meiosis, performed using germ cell verses somatic cell, etc). Gametogenesis can be divided into spermatogenesis (producing sperm) and oogenesis (formation of matured egg cells). The levels of endorphin peaks as the strength and frequency of cervix dilations and contractions increase to combat pain. Biodiversity is essentially refers to the total variety and variability between & within all classes of species as well as the ecosystems in which they reside. So, it is important to determine the unique characteristics fungi and protist. Favourable characteristics that allow organisms to survive in their environment can take three forms: ‘Favourable’ means that these characteristics allow the organism to specifically or better cope with its ambient environment. This subject of manipulating evolution brings forth the idea of âplaying as/with godâ in which western religions, such as Islamic and Christian religions, strongly disapprove as regard as disrespectful. The insertion of therapeutic proteins to substitute the absence or low level of protein produced via natural, in-vivo protein synthesis due to a defective gene may be a substitute of gene therapy. Until 1982, the only method to obtain insulin was from beef meaning that the insulin was scarce quantities. 2. Spores different to gametes as they do NOT need to combine or be fertilised by another spore to form an offspring. HSC biology. OR. For example, through recombinant DNA technology, biotechnologists use a restriction enzyme to cut DNA segments in jellyfish that are responsible for their glow-in-the-dark feature and the same restriction to cut out same section of DNA from rabbits. Implantation is the process of adhering the fertilised egg to stick to the walls of the reproductive tract, providing the most suitable environment for zygote development. The upload frequency for extensin questions will increase when the notes for all four modules are complete before the end of term 1. Gene therapy involves inserting a gene into an organismâs DNA in replace a defective gene that is responsible for a disease. The result is mass production of calcitonin hormone which can be injected into the human body to prevent osteoporosis (bones becoming brittle), affecting over 1 million Australians. We will learn about these two terms when you learn about Punnett Square in Week 4’s notes. One fertilises the ovum inside the ovule and the other male gamete fertilises two polar nuclei (diploid nucleus) inside the ovule which develops into a endosperm which is a tissue that supply nutrients to the zygote (seed) when it grows. Before we hop on the materialistic train and start digging into the content, please give me a minute to walk you through what you should keep in mind as the major highlights for this week’s material. The extraction of insect-resistant Bt gene from the bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis, allows biotechnologists to insert the gene into crops such as corn and cotton to resist crops being invaded by insects and pathogens (e.g. Hyperstimulation is possible when the female takes the supplied fertility drugs such as those containing FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone) or GnRH hormones as mentioned in the hormonal cycle. There is genetic variation in population, which affects it phenotype (physical traits). This usually occur when the environmental conditions are favourable for the fungi. 4 marks = One mark for each of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. EasyHSC is a free online resource for students studying the NSW HSC. This could be a exotic species introduced into the habitat (e.g. Strengthening muscles of pelvic floor which support the delivery of offspring via the uterus then cervix and then through the vagina. There a decline in species diversity would mean the availability of such food, medicine (penicillin from fungus) and common substances may be reduced or completely removed. This is followed by the elongation of the cell and cytokinesis which is the splitting of the cell membrane and cytoplasm of the cell into two daughter cells. 2 marks = Explain how these hormone are secreted and changes in their levels before and during pregnancy. Explain how Darwin/Wallace’s theory of evolution by natural … Faster growing salmons increases global food availability to meet the demands of the growing world population. Another example involves a gene that specifies for starch product to be inserted into plasmids which are absorbed by a bacterium for replication. This can lead to greater genetic variation in species population as the mating process is less selective than internal fertilisation. [7 marks], Week 7 Curveball Question #4: Explain how does genetic techniques affect Earthâs biodiversity? This is useful as it be assist in the prevention, control and cure of diseases which we will also explore in Module 7 and 8! new predator introduced to kill the unicorns, sudden large drop in temperature, a virus, etc). This increase in genetic variation means that there are more allele combinations and, thus, more unique adaptations. HSC Free Resources » Biology Free Resources Find the HSC Resources you need. These gametes can combine to produce either a genetically identical offspring or genetically different offspring. Our extensive library of handy and helpful HSC Biology resources including past papers with worked solutions, study guides, study notes, essays written by students, assignments and many more, to help you prepare for the HSC An example of this is how echidna can decrease its heart rate to reduce the oxygen it consumes per minute when they are swimming to escape floods. Year 11 Biology Notes. Year 11 Biology (NEW) Year 11 Chemistry (NEW) Year 11 Physics (NEW) Year 12 Biology (NEW) Year 12 Chemistry (NEW) Year 12 Physics (NEW) Preliminary Business Studies; About us. Advancement in scientific knowledge provided humanity the knowledge that genes play an important role in the process of protein-synthesis. Let’s have a look at them now. Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the continuity and evolution of the species – relating back to inquiry question. The enzymes in living organisms are sensitive to temperature and thus extreme temperatures would hinder the operations of metabolic processes and can result in death. Artificial pollination is cost effective way of producing new plant variations with relative ease. I am not sure if you are aware but humanity’s scientific knowledge has advanced a lot over the past century. Genetic variation helps increase the population’s overall survival rate and thus support the continuity of species. I would meet with Michael right before each midterm, and after the session I would feel incredibly confident going into the tests, which ultimately resulted in me getting an A+ in chemistry. sheep wool for carpets, chair seatings, tennis balls, etc). Year 11 Biology (NEW) Year 11 Chemistry (NEW) Year 11 Physics (NEW) Year 12 Biology (NEW) Year 12 Chemistry (NEW) Year 12 Physics (NEW) Preliminary Business Studies; About us. The empty follicle will collapse to form the corpus lute which further secretes oestrogen and progesterone, preventing any further production of FSH of LH. These stages of reproduction help pass on genetics materials from parent(s) to their offspring. The mature egg will migrate to the ovary’s surface and eventually into the fallopian tube where it will be moved by cilia along the tube and into the uterus. Solutions to Week 1 Homework Set. bees. Bees, wind and water can be transport methods of pollens grain to stigma of another plant for cross pollination. This results in the pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) and luteinising hormones (LH) to encourage follicle (and its containing oocytes) to develop inside the ovaries. These proteins functions to bind with receptors in the body to relay electrochemical messages to the hypothalamus and initial a desired response. Did you not knowing or writing out a definition for the main keyword can cost you a mark in HSC Questions? Book a FREE TRIAL lesson today! However, during this time, the placenta will provide the pathway in which carbon dioxide and urea can be eliminated from the foetus into the endometrium via diffusion and secreted out of the mother’s body. This is because artificial pollination can be performed manually. An example of this may include the long ears of Red Kangaroos that aid cooling. The list are some areas which we have already talked about that can yield benefits for society upon future research. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection states that new selective pressures introduced in an environment will alter a species’ population based on the species’s favourable characteristics which is derived from their genetic information. 1 mark = correctly definition of adaptation. Student ID: 2019 Sample HSC Biology Paper #1 General Instructions • Reading Time - 5 minutes • Working time - 3 hours • Please write using black pen. With this knowledge, scientists uses various technologies and methodologies to alter an organism’s gene sequence. The âGolden Riceâ involves inserting genes into plasmids that specifies for the production of beta carotene which is converted into vitamin A. If a species population have low genetic diversity (or variation) it would be susceptible to extinction upon changes in ambient environmental selective pressures. Reproduction processes such as meiosis can be used to explain the origin of such variation. There are 57 lessons in the HSC Study Lab Year 12 Biology course, which corresponds to the 120 indicative hours of study required by the syllabus. This is a form of asexual reproduction in animals, e.g. Golden Rice can help reduce vitamin A deficiency conditions that are suffered by millions of people globally. The extraction process involves using a gene splicing technique in recombinant DNA technology. So, essentially, the gamete undergoes mitosis to develop into a drone bee which will have a diploid chromosome number. The term Biology comes from two Greek words (bios means life and logos means knowledge). • Internal fertilisation typically have less mating partner options than external fertilisation. The mushroom cap therefore has basida, which are examples of sporangia, that produces spores. There are two types of cells: somatic and non-somatic (sex) cells. However, adrenaline may also cause the opposite response which is decreasing cervix contractions due to fear. Arguably, this means that internal fertilisation may low the chance of the continuity of a species (if we assume that genetic variation is controlled for both internal and external fertilisation, i.e. Trial us for free today! If you recall from the natural female menstrual cycle, only one mature oocyte is produced. Other nourishing substances secreted by the glands will help sustain the embryo by supplying it with oxygen and nutrients. This is because the sperm does not need to travel by chance to fertilise an egg. Under the concept of reproduction, we are specifically concerned about the reproductive mechanisms (how they work) occurring in animals, plants, fungi, bacteria and protists. Over many generations of reproduction, the population will predominately made up of the offsprings with favourable characteristics. In order, here are the Stages of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection: 1. For such reasons, many governments have banned the use of in vitro fertilisation techniques for women over a certain age. Mass artificial pollination would reduce genetic diversity. It, however, fails to account the origins of life on Earth or any place in our universe from start to finish. Humans are diploids (we contain two sets of chromosomes, i.e. This now-separated bud undergoes further cell division to produce more bud cells. Over time, this bud undergoes cell division while still being attached to the parent which may result in a chain of bud cells due to cell division. against predators), it is more susceptible to death than zygotes found via internal fertilisation. Sexual spores are developed when opposite gender hyphae are combined together to develop a sporing-producing structure known as zygospore. These egg cells can undergo parthenogenesis to produce haploid drone (male) bees. We will now examine reproduction for mammals specifically! Is it a smart thing to do? This is favourable for organisms living in hot environments. Yes, there are evidence to back them up. Reproduction means to reproduce = new offspring. Thus, mass artificial insemination reduces the number of offsprings produced by random breeding (speaking from a total population’s genetic variation perspective). The effects of deforestation and soil erosion extends beyond destroying the habitats and ecosystems of species that reside in the forest/rainforest. Ecosystem Diversity â refers to the total variety of ecosystems (habitats) and the abiotic components interacting within an ecosystem (e.g. The flagellum component of the sperm cell allows it to move through water that otherwise would not be possible on land. 2 marks = Describe how cloning decreases a population’s genetic variation. long or short ears depending on environment temperature). Encourage the growth of blood vessels, allowing greater volumes of blood and thus nutrients surrounding the embryo. These spores that are genetically different from their parents. This occurs in starfish where a part of its body can be separated from its parent and the separated section can develop into a new starfish that is genetically identical to parent starfish via cell division. Internal fertilisation tends to occur between terrestrial animals. These characteristics may be physical (Structural), physiological or behavioural. has double the chromosomes of each of the male and female gametes which are both haploid. Spermatozoa must make contact and fuse with the egg cells. Applying the four steps of Darwin’s Theory to this case of brown and white rabbits, the two different coloured rabbits indicate that there is genetic variation in the population due to different allele combination. The white rabbits have greater survival chances compared to the brown rabbits due to its favourable white appearance. HSC Biology 2nd Paper MCQ Question With Answer 2021: Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification and taxonomy. The soil that results in high water turbidity can completely remove by covering underground aquatic habits as well as eliminate larvae that are residing in the waters. Internal fertilisation involves the fusion of male and female gametes within a parent’s body. The following is an extract from a gardening website. Describe a first-hand investigation that could be used to verify the effects of pH on the colour of hydrangea flowers. Protists are mostly unicellular whereas fungi are mostly multicellular. The process starts with the copying the genetic material (in the form of bacterial chromosomes) of the parent cell. (T/F), Curveball Question 1: Explain in what scenarios will artificial reproduction methods increase and decrease genetic variation in a population of rainbow unicorns (4 marks), Curveball Question 2: Explain the implications of how adaptations can only be passed down via heredity on evolution (4 marks), Curveball Question 3: Suppose there is a large population of white and brown rabbits living on a heavy snowy mountain. Plants can also undergo parthenogenesis which is called apomixis. The glow in the dark jellyfish DNA is inserted into a rabbit motherâs embryo and the rabbit embryos develop into produce a glow-in-the-dark rabbits! Also, should we clone humans? Protists are microscopic whereas fungi are macroscopic. 2 marks = Define structural adaptation and provide example, 2 marks = Define physiological adaptatation and provide example, 2 marks = Define behavioural adaptation and provide example. bacteria and virus) as the gene specifies for Bt toxins proteins. Many genetically identical flowers can be produced via cloning. Module 1:Cells as the Basis of Life (part 2). No fancy technology required. This is the bulk of the HSC Chemistry exam paper – 80 marks, so allow more than two hours. It explains the drivers and consequences of evolution to a reasonable extent. Dolly the Sheep (cute sheep clone example). During reproduction, the parents’ genetic information (DNA) is copied and passed onto the offspring. Not just structural characteristics (phenotype) but also physiological and behavioural characteristics! See the exam paper, plus marking guidelines and feedback from markers, for the 2017 NSW Biology Higher School Certificate (HSC) exam. Since the nutritional environment in which the bacteria is cultured contains antibiotics, any bacteria that does not absorb the plasmid containing antibiotic resistant gene will be killed. We have discussed potential benefits of research using several genetic technologies for society already. Advancements in nanoparticles are able to accelerate the capabilities of delivering various enzymes through the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspace short palindromic repeats) technique to edit genes to cure diseases and disorders. Let us walk you through it! https://discord.gg/HdZUmfG The female is later tested for successfully pregnancy which depends on the number of embryo that is transferred to the woman’s uterus (womb). genetic variation is the same for both external and internal fertilisation). So, we wonât go into detail. These include the introduction of gel electrophoresis used for DNA profiling and sequencing which we have talked about in Module 5. These buds can develop into new plants such as onions. :'(. Also, due to lower dosage required, the effect of pesticides runoffs into ambient waterways that are harmful to fish can be reduced (although this is an environmental implication rather than societal). This is because one selected male’s sperm cells can be used to inseminate many female egg cells. Don’t worry if you don’t know what genes and alleles are, we will look into their definitions and role in genetics in Week 2. two copies of each chromosome). Adrenaline provides energy for the parent to continue delivering the offspring by producing stronger dilation and contractions of the cervix. The hormone oestrogen in males help with the maturing of the sperm cells in males. There are many ethical issues surrounding in vitro fertilisation. However, as time passed, the use and purpose of biotechnology evolved which we will refer to modern biotechnology which we will refer to biotechnology from this point onwards. the continuity of species. Pesticides are also toxic to fish as it can reduce the fishâs ability to regulate its internal temperature which can affect enzymesâ ability to catalyse necessary metabolic processes like cellular respiration to sustain life. These plasmids are then transferred into rice embryos to produce Golden Rice which has higher vitamin A concentration than traditional white rice. Anyways, a last point that we wish to touch on is that modern biotechnology can be divided into several categories which includes: medical, industrial, food, agricultural, marine and environmental. Artificial Pollination involves the manual transfer of pollens into stigma of another plant to combine with the egg cell (ovule) of the plant. Get the joke? Example: Producing plant offsprings that have both purple and red flower colours – combined characteristics of the two plants. Michael really is a true professional; he valued each minute of our session and would explain topics concisely and exactly. This therefore raises the concern about Earthâs limited land capacity being used up as population grows. Fertilisation occurs inside the ovule where the pollen can fertilise the ovule where male gametes are combined with the ovum inside the ovule forming a zygote. So medical biotechnology supports the prevention, control and treatment of diseases. According to Darwin’s Theory, this would mean that the white rabbits will survive and reproduce more successfully than the brown rabbits population. The fusion of the sperm and egg cell results in fertilisation of the egg cell, producing of zygote. We will now explore the SPECIFIC TYPES OF REPRODUCTION in the sexual and asexual reproduction categories! This is because no new allele combinations are created. Practical HSC Biology Practice Questions Question 1. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection is a popular and widely accepted modern theory of evolution. As from Year 8 Geography, the tree roots stabilise the soil so removing trees would destabilise the soil and result in soil erosion. • NESA approved calculators are permitted. Maharashtra Board 10th Science Paper 2 2018 Question Paper: Find here the links to download Class 10 MSBSHSE 2018 Question Paper for Science Part II with Solutions. We offer an extensive program of HSC preparation courses across a range of subjects as well as complementary study skills courses for HSC students to help maximise their HSC results. However, if gene therapy is performed on germ cells, the unborn offspring may be affected without freedom of choice. cold strawberries, cold tomatoes, faster growing salmons examples mentioned earlier). There is only one reason to why biotechnology works. • Greater quantity of gametes are produced via external fertilisation compared to internal fertilisation. The environmental agent is refers to the environmental change. In short, budding in protists starts off by the parent protozoan producing a bud which is a daughter nucleus that is created based on the replicate of nucleus DNA, followed by equal nucleus division but unequal separation of the parent protozoan’s cytoplasm. This means that the bud is smaller than the parent. You must:: 1. Reproduction is the process of creating a new individual or offspring from their parent(s). 1 mark = Relating to how an offspring’s favourable characteristics will allow it to survive and reproduce more successfully. The discussion involving ethics is vital to establish the rights, wrongs, moral standards, responsibilities and justice pertaining to the use of biotechnology. read other testimonials . Other than that check out conquer HSC website (I don't have familiarity with the biology since I never did it but I can tell you the Chem ones are high quality so the biology is probably similarly high quality). However, existing evidence is not complete to transform these theories into universal laws! With the insertion of Bt genes into crops, the species such as butterflies and beetles can experience a decline in species diversity and thus biodiversity. Favourable in hot environments. In some plants, the surrounding space of the ovule will develop into a fruit. Adaptation are the inherited favourable characteristics of an offspring from its parent(s). • Internal fertilisation generally required more energy in search for a mating partner and perform the mating process which are unnecessary in external fertilisation. The following methodologies are used to manipulate the reproduction processes of plants and animals in the agriculture industry: All four above are types of artificial reproduction. There are many tools being invented or created to increase the capacity for the value in which medical biotechnology can provide to society. The offspring that is formed from sexual reproduction has the genetic material that is derived from its parents. This will be the only section focusing on past biotechnology techniques and all other sections in this weekâs notes will be referring to modern biotechnology unless otherwise specified. Developments over the years have resulted in machines with greatly increased speeds, storage or memory, and computing power.