Flooding as a source of nutrients was important to Egyptians along the Nile River until the Aswan Dam was built in the 1960s. For thousands of years, the river has provided a source of irrigation to transform the dry area around it into lush agricultural land. "Natural increase" is a term used in economics, geography, sociology and population studies. ", "44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas", List of rivers that have reversed direction, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Floodplain&oldid=991551181, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from May 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing expert attention with no reason or talk parameter, Articles needing expert attention from March 2019, Civil engineering articles needing expert attention, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica, ÐÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÑÑÐºÐ°Ñ (ÑÐ°ÑÐ°ÑÐºÐµÐ²ÑÑÐ°)â, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Powell, W. Gabe. With a length of 3,395 miles, it is the country’s second longest river—surpassed only by the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang)—and its drainage basin is the third largest in … Preclearance: Prior to 2013, redistricting plans in some states had to be “precleared” by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) or a three-judge panel in DC, due to past federal discrimination cases regarding violation of the Voting Rights Act. What is an example of a floodplain?. This is described as lateral accretion, since the deposition builds the point bar laterally into the river channel. Floods in the Human Existence Creation Myths area of a river subject to flooding during a specific number of years, based on historical trends. A floodplain or flood plain or flood-plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. This is described as vertical accretion, since the deposits build the floodplain upwards. Thus, floodplains are an important storage site for sediments during their transport from where they are generated to their ultimate depositional environment. Floods can occur for a variety of reasons, and their effects can be minimized in several different ways. , Repeated flooding eventually builds up an alluvial ridge, whose natural levees and abandoned meander loops may stand well above most of the floodplain. Yellow River, also called Huang He, principal river of northern China, east-central and eastern Asia. 2009. Floods. The FIRM typically focuses on delineation of the 100-year flood inundation area, also known within the NFIP as the Special Flood Hazard Area. Floods are also responsible for moving large amounts of sediments about within streams.  Many State and local governments have, in addition, adopted floodplain construction regulations which are more restrictive than those mandated by the NFIP. Although the dam protects crops and settlements from the annual floods, farmers must now use fertilizers to feed their crops. Start studying AP Human Geography Chapter 3 Vocab. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Floodplain. Is dominant to accumulation over space and time when the glacier enters warmer conditions. The first is the main channel of the river itself, called the floodway. Levees are typically build up enough to be relatively well-drained compared with nearby wetlands, and levees in non-arid climates are often heavily vegetated. When there is an outflow of water in a place, it is said to be flooded.  A problem is that any alteration of the watershed upstream of the point in question can potentially affect the ability of the watershed to handle water, and thus potentially affects the levels of the periodic floods. Most of the suspended sand is deposited on the levees, leaving the silt and clay sediments to be deposited as floodplain muds furthe from the river. In order for flood-prone property to qualify for government-subsidized insurance, a local community must adopt an ordinance that protects the floodway and requires that new residential structures built in Special Flood Hazard Areas be elevated to at least the level of the 100-year flood. Floods usually occur when precipitation falls more quickly than that water can be absorbed into the ground or carried away by rivers or streams. The situation caused when the water becomes uncontrollable is said to be flooded. An example includes rivers becoming deeper by sediment being eroded away from the bottom surface. Floods can occur for a variety of reasons, and their effects can be minimized in several different ways. AP Human Geo Chapter 3 Vocabualry. Floods are a natural part of the water cycle, but they can be terrifying forces of destruction. There are two different definitions. Free flashcards to help memorize facts about AP Human Geography Chapter 3 Migration Vocab. A number of whole towns such as English, Indiana, have been completely relocated to remove them from the floodplain. Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . Wittfogel advanced the term in his book Oriental Despotism (1957). brain drain. Put most simply, a flood is an overflow of water in one place. Groundwater is a valuable resource both in the United States and throughout the world. Increased friction as the river breaks its banks reduces the river’s efficiency to transport material resulting in increased levels of deposition. Erosion on the outside of the meander usually closely balances deposition on the inside of the meander, so that the channel shifts in the direction of the meander without changing significantly in width. A floodplain or flood plain or flood-plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. Historical avulsions leading to catastrophic flooding include the 1855 Yellow River flood and the 2008 Kosi River flood. Example: Nile river for irrigation? The soils usually consist of … Birth rate in this context almost always refers to the annual number of births per thousand in a given population. Searches can extend to data held in U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) clearinghouse nodes. Test Answers on Geography \ Ap Human Geography Chapter 3 Vocab Terms. , Sedimentation from overbank flow is concentrated on natural levees, crevasse splays, and in wetlands and shallow lakes of flood basins. Perhaps unsurprisingly, floods tend to affect low-lying areas most severely. http://www.opengeography.org/physical-geography.html. A. The presence of mass-scale swine and poultry lots and processing plants in a sandy floodplain – a region once dotted by small tobacco farms – has long posed a difficult dilemma for a state where swine and poultry represent billions of dollars a year for the economy. migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors. This college-level course introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped human understanding, … A floodplain, or flood plain, is flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a stream or river that experiences occasional flooding. Human Geography - High School Vocabulary.com Review these human geography terms and learn all about the human forces that shape and are shaped by the natural world.You'll explore immigration and emigration, colonialism, development and urbanization, demography, globalization, and much more. ———Floodplain Natural Resources and Functions——— 8-2 The natural and cultural values associated with floodplain resources can be categorized in a variety of ways. "Human Geography. Floodplain values can be thought of in terms of environmental quality values such as fish and wildlife habitat and water quality. Define forced migration. large-scale immigration by talented people. The river bank fails and floodwaters scour a channel. High water levels have also caused small dams to break, wreaking havoc downstream. Perhaps unsurprisingly, floods tend to affect low-lying areas most severely. Flash floods are sudden and unexpected, taking place when very intense rains fall over a very brief period. People may also line a river bank with levees, high walls that keep the stream within its banks during floods. The worst of these, and the worst natural disaster (excluding famine and epidemics) were the 1931 China floods, estimated to have killed millions. The production of nutrients peaks and falls away quickly; however the surge of new growth endures for some time. People try to protect areas that might flood with dams, and dams are usually very effective. Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there ... Floodplain: Definition. A floodplain consists of two parts. When a dam breaks along a reservoir, flooding can be catastrophic. an example is not all that important Application: This is important because it drives people to emigrate because consequences of any natural disasters grow exponentially when in a floodplain. Natural levees are ridges along river banks that form from rapid deposition from overbank flow. Users will begin exploration of the Geography Network by visiting the Geography Network portal (Web site) at www.GeographyNetwork.com. In some floodplains, such as the Inner Niger Delta of Mali, annual flooding events are a natural part of the local ecology and rural economy, allowing for the raising of crops through recessional agriculture. The rate at which the channel shifts varies greatly, with reported rates ranging from too slow to measure to as much as 2,400 feet (730 m) per year for the Kosi River of India. Sediments from the crevasse spread out as delta-shaped deposits with numerous distributary channels. Advanced Placement Human Geography (also known as AP Human Geo, AP Geography, APHG, AP HuGe, AP HuG, AP Human, or HGAP) is an Advanced Placement social studies course that studies human geography.The test is administered by College Board.. Microscopic organisms thrive and larger species enter a rapid breeding cycle. , Wherever the river meanders, the flowing water erodes the river bank on the outside of the meander, while sediments are simultaneously deposited in a point bar on the inside of the meander. "Human geography is the branch of social sciences that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place." the human existence, the present situation regarding flood h azards, why good “floodplain management” is necessary, possible future roles of the student in the management process, and sets the overall tone and need for academic treatment of this subject matter. , Crevasses are formed by breakout events from the main river channel. Media related to Floodplains at Wikimedia Commons, Land adjacent to a stream or river which is flooded during periods of high discharge, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), "What Are the 10 Deadliest Disasters in World History? These extreme weather events cause severe economic disruption and loss of human life in the densely-populated region. Lesson 1 - Human & Cultural Geography: Definition, Characteristics & Studies Take Quiz Lesson 2 - Contemporary Approaches in Geography: Area, Spatial, Locational & Geographic Systems Analysis “The most wonderful mystery of life may well be the means by which it created so much diversity from so little physical matter.The biosphere, all organisms combined, makes up only about one part in ten billion of the earth’s mass. What is Biodiversity? not from living things.In physical geography, used to describe non-living components of an environment such as rock or water.. Ablation – the net loss of water from a glacier through melting, calving, evaporation, sublimation or wind transport. Waters may build up gradually over a period of weeks, when a long period of rainfall or snow-melt fills the ground with water and raises stream levels. Where a detailed study of a waterway has been done, the 100-year floodplain will also include the floodway, the critical portion of the floodplain which includes the stream channel and any adjacent areas that must be kept free of encroachments that might block flood flows or restrict storage of flood waters. This change is a threat to the riparian zones and other floodplain forests. ... floodplain. Floods are a natural part of the water cycle, but they can be terrifying forces of destruction. Further menus guide users to mapping services and ge… This makes floodplains particularly valuable for agriculture. Excluding famines and epidemics, some of the worst natural disasters in history (measured by fatalities) have been river floods, particularly in the Yellow River in China â see list of deadliest floods. the area subject to flooding during a … Rivers deposit new nutrient-rich sediments when they flood and so floodplains have traditionally been good for farming. The point bar is build up to a level very close to that of the river banks. Commercial structures can be elevated or flood proofed to or above this level. — Wikipedia Here are a couple of additional definitions from disciplinary reference books. Tugay forests form an ecosystem associated with floodplains, especially in Central Asia. Hydraulic civilization, according to the theories of the German-American historian Karl A. Wittfogel, any culture having an agricultural system that is dependent upon large-scale government-managed waterworks—productive (for irrigation) and protective (for flood control). Wetlands act as a buffer between land and high water levels and play a key role in minimizing the impacts of floods. Definition: been forced to migrate to another country to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of general violence, violations of human rights, or other disasters and cannot return for fear of persecution because of race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion Mid-channel bars in braided rivers migrate downstream through processes resembling those in point bars of meandering rivers and can build up a floodplain. The US government also sponsors flood hazard mitigation efforts to reduce flood impacts.  The soils usually consist of clays, silts, sands, and gravels deposited during floods. River flow rates are undergoing change following suit with climate change. Term. AP Human Geography : Deforestation Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography. Plants and fish along the Colorado River, for example, depend on seasonal flooding to rearrange sand bars. Another commonly encountered term is the Special Flood Hazard Area, which is any area subject to inundation by the 100-year flood. 8. Give an example of forced migration. This site provides information about the Geography Network, available content services, and service accessibility. Opportunistic feeders (particularly birds) move in to take advantage. Define floodplain. Details. Ap Human Geography Chapter 3 Vocab Terms. Economic Push and Pull Factors-People often emigrate from places with a few job opportunities to somewhere that has plenty of jobs.A place with a rapidly increasing population may attract construction workers, restaurant employees, and public service officials. In undisturbed river systems, overbank flow is a frequent occurrence, typically occurring every one to two years regardless of climate or topography. Definition: The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends. Abiotic – lit. Significant net erosion of sediments occurs only when the meander cuts into higher ground. Crevasse formation is most common in sections of rivers where the river bed is accumulating sediments (aggrading). A flash flood may do its damage miles from where the rain actually falls if the water travels far down a dry streambed so that the flash flood occurs far from the location of the original storm. The floodplain is the area that a river floods onto when it exceeds bank-full capacity. Wetting of the floodplain soil releases an immediate surge of nutrients: those left over from the last flood, and those that result from the rapid decomposition of organic matter that has accumulated since then. Alluvium is rich in nutrients and leads to floodplains often being used for farming. Areal definition, of or relating to the extent of a bounded surface or two-dimensional space:The evaporation model was applied to surfaces of overgrown water having up to … The extent of floodplain inundation depends in part on the flood magnitude, defined by the return period. 1. adds to available low-wage labor pool 2. competition with locals for limited jobs 3. additional cost on receiving country to provide services (e.g., housing, food, education, Put most simply, a flood is an overflow of water in one place. Dynamic Earth: Introduction to Physical Geography. . Higher rates were found on the levees (4 kg/m2 or more) and on low-lying areas (1.6 kg/m2). These sediments provide habitats for animals, and the periodic movement of sediment is crucial to the lives of several types of organisms. , Floodplains can form around rivers of any kind or size. Even relatively straight stretches of river are found to be capable of producing floodplains. Title. At much longer intervals, the river may completely abandon the channel belt and begin building a new channel belt at another position on the floodplain. a riverbed, basin, watershed, or floodplain, by means of erosion. Definition. River Findhorn in flood near Randolph's Leap. Today, the river continues to serve as a source of irrigation, as well as an important transportation and trade route. Flow over the banks of the river deposits a thin veneer of sediments on the floodplain that is coarsest and thickest close to the channel. A levee in one location may just force the high water up or downstream and cause flooding there. These forests have over time synced their seedling deposits after the spring peaks in flow to best take advantage of the nutrient rich soil generated by peak flow. They are a category of riparian zones or systems. Flood is a term used to denote an enormous amount of water. , Overbank flow takes place when the river is flooded with more water than can be accommodated by the river channel. However, in Bangladesh, which occupies the Ganges Delta, the advantages provided by the richness of the alluvial soil of the floodplain are severely offset by frequent floods brought on by cyclones and annual monsoon rains. The deposited load on the floodplain is known as alluvium. This process is called avulsion, and takes place at intervals of 10-1000 years. The overall effect is that, as the river meanders, it creates a level flood plain composed mostly of point bar deposits. In simplest terms, it is the birth rate minus the death rate . Online tools are available to define areas of interest and search for specific geographic content.  Sedimentation rates for a three-day flood of the Meuse and Rhine Rivers in 1993 found average sedimentation rates in the floodplain of between 0.57 and 1.0 kg/ms. "100-year floodplain" expect flooding every century. In some areas without detailed study information, structures may be required to be elevated to at least two feet above the surrounding grade. , Most floodplains are formed by deposition on the inside of river meanders and by overbank flow. Other smaller-scale mitigation efforts include acquiring and demolishing flood-prone buildings or flood-proofing them. 4 Diagnostic Tests 225 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. This had been preceded by the 1887 Yellow River flood, which killed around one million people, and is the second-worst natural disaster in history. , The quantity of sediments in a floodplain greatly exceed the river load of sediments. Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor. A floodplain (or floodplain) is a generally flat area of land next to a river or stream. The New Madrid Overflow in the image above was created with the recognition that the Mississippi River sometimes simply cannot be contained by levees and must be allowed to flood.Not all the consequences of flooding are negative. Flooding is often more severe in areas that have been recently logged. A floodplain can contain 100 or even 1,000 times as many species as a river. The NFIP offers insurance to properties located within a flood prone area, as defined by the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), which depicts various flood risks for a community. Floods usually occur when precipitation falls more quickly than that water … Chapter 3 Outline Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? , Floodplains can support particularly rich ecosystems, both in quantity and diversity. Geography >> AP Human Geo Chapter 3 Vocabualry; Shared Flashcard Set. Even if the ground is too wet to absorb more water, plants still slow the water’s passage and increase the time between rainfall and the water’s arrival in a stream; this could keep all the water falling over a region to hit the stream at once. The Nile River flows over 6,600 kilometers (4,100 miles) until emptying into the Mediterranean Sea. Heavily vegetated lands are less likely to experience flooding.  The alluvial ridge is topped by a channel belt, formed by successive generations of channel migration and meander cutoff. Guest worker definition is - a foreign laborer working temporarily in an industrialized usually European country. People who have been forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion. Plants slow down water as it runs over the land, giving it time to enter the ground. Degradation in geography and geology is the process of the lowering of a fluvial surface, i.e. It stretches from the bank s of the river to the outer edges of the valley. Reasons for Migrating 1. , When the rate at which the river is cutting downwards becomes great enough that overbank flows become infrequent, the river is said to have abandoned its floodplain, and portions of the abandoned floodplain may be preserved as fluvial terraces. The flood may take different forms such as in the … Identifying Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Using, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 17:28. In the United States the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) manages the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). A large shopping center and parking lot, for example, may raise the levels of the 5-year, 100-year, and other floods, but the maps are rarely adjusted, and are frequently rendered obsolete by subsequent development. CREATE AN ACCOUNT Create Tests & Flashcards. Definition. California's Hazard Mitigation Program is one funding source for mitigation projects.
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