Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) reigned as King of Spain.  Further evidence against the disease being spread by Chinese workers was that workers entered Europe through other routes that did not result in a detectable spread, making them unlikely to have been the original hosts. Spain remained neutral during World War I. In Senegal it was named 'the Brazilian flu', and in Brazil … King Alfonso XIII of Spain, 1886 - 1941, was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. COLOURISED Spanish flu pictures show an eerie resemblance to the current coronavirus pandemic even with them being taken a 100 years ago.  As a whole, accurate data from China's port cities show astonishingly low mortality rates compared to other cities in Asia. In 1918, older adults may have had partial protection caused by exposure to the 1889–1890 flu pandemic, known as the "Russian flu".  Peru experienced a late wave in early 1920, and Japan had one from late 1919 to 1920, with the last cases in March. The second and most deadly wave occurred in October 1918 and resulted in millions of deaths. The newspapers of the day thought and reported that Spain was the most affected country, thus the pandemic was dubbed “the Spanish Flu”. The Kingdom of Spain is a country that existed from 1516 to 1998. Some parts of Asia had 30 times higher death rates than some parts of Europe, and generally, Africa and Asia had higher rates, while Europe, North America, and Asia had lower ones.  Spain was not involved in the war, having remained neutral, and had not imposed wartime censorship.  Misinformation would also spread along with the disease. Several explanations have been proposed for this, including the fact that lower temperatures and increased precipitation provided ideal conditions for virus replication and transmission, while also negatively affecting the immune systems of soldiers and other people exposed to the inclement weather, a factor proven to increase likelihood of infection by both viruses and pneumococcal co-morbid infections documented to have affected a large percentage of pandemic victims (one fifth of them, with a 36% mortality rate). Here's how we did it in 1918 – and what happened next", "The effect of public health measures on the 1918 influenza pandemic in U.S. cities", "As the 1918 Flu Emerged, Cover-Up and Denial Helped It Spread", "Ten things you need to know about pandemic influenza (update of 14 October 2005)", "Historical Estimates of World Population", "Flu experts warn of need for pandemic plans", "What the history of pandemics tells us about coronavirus", "Estimation of potential global pandemic influenza mortality on the basis of vital registry data from the 1918–20 pandemic: a quantitative analysis", "Spanish Influenza in Japanese Armed Forces, 1918–1920", Looking Through Indonesia's History For Answers to Swine Flu, "İSPANYOL GRİBİNİN DÜNYA VE OSMANLI DEVLETİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİLERİ", "1918 flu centenary: How to survive a pandemic", "1918–1920 – Influenza and Pneumonia Pandemic – Nationwide ~820,000–850,000 – Deadliest American Disasters and Large-Loss-of-Life Events", The Great Pandemic: The United States in 1918–1919, "The silent invader – Digital Collections – National Library of Medicine", "Flu Epidemic Hit Utah Hard in 1918, 1919", "The Great Pandemic of 1918: State by State", "A deadly virus rages throughout Canada at the end of the First World War", "A gripe espanhola no Brasil – Elísio Augusto de Medeiros e Silva, empresário, escritor e membro da AEILIJ", "Coronavirus: forgotten lessons of the Spanish flu pandemic", "South Africa bungled the Spanish flu in 1918. This may explain why the Spanish flu had its surprising effect on younger, healthier people, as a person with a stronger immune system would potentially have a stronger overreaction. The hospital treated thousands of victims of poison gas attacks, and other casualties of war, and 100,000 soldiers passed through the camp every day. Consequently, during modern pandemics, health officials look for deadlier strains of a virus when it reaches places with social upheaval.  Nevertheless, there were some reports of respiratory illness on parts of the path the laborers took to get to Europe, which also passed through North America. , In 2013, the AIR Worldwide Research and Modeling Group "characterized the historic 1918 pandemic and estimated the effects of a similar pandemic occurring today using the AIR Pandemic Flu Model". China may have experienced a relatively mild flu season in 1918 compared to other areas of the world. Spain remained neutral in the conflict, and so newspapers there were free to report on the virus’ effects, including the infection of the county’s King Alfonso XIII. order back issues and use the historic Daily Express However, the first wave caused a significant disruption in the military operations of World War I, with three-quarters of French troops, half the British forces, and over 900,000 German soldiers sick.  Treatments of traditional medicine, such as bloodletting, ayurveda, and kampo were also applied. The “Spanish Flu ” did not begin in Spain, nor was it influenza.  The lower estimates of the Chinese death toll are based on the low mortality rates that were found in Chinese port cities (for example, Hong Kong) and on the assumption that poor communications prevented the flu from penetrating the interior of China.  However, no tissue samples have survived for modern comparison. The posthumous son of Alfonso XII, Alfonso XIII was immediately proclaimed king under the regency of his mother, María Cristina.  There were also beliefs that the Germans were behind it, for example by poisoning the aspirin manufactured by Bayer, or by releasing poison gas from U-boats..  Rolland had authored an article in the Lancet during 1917 about a respiratory illness outbreak beginning in 1916 in Étaples, France.  Many of his subjects did not; estimates for fatalities in the capital city, Addis Ababa, range from 5,000 to 10,000, or higher. Prince Philip was reportedly helicoptered to Windsor to be with his wife for the first time since February earlier today. And the shocking news of the epidemic reached other European nations. READ MORE: Meghan Markle’s ‘coronavirus tips’ to avoid infection exposed. , Studies have shown that the immune system of Spanish flu victims was weakened by adverse climate conditions which were particularly unseasonably cold and wet for extended periods of time during the duration of the pandemic.  Other U.S. cities including Detroit, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Minneapolis and St. Louis were hit particularly hard, with death rates higher than all of 1918. suffered no additional adverse economic effects due to implementing those measures, when compared with cities that implemented measures late or not at all.  Similarities between a reconstruction of the virus and avian viruses, combined with the human pandemic preceding the first reports of influenza in swine, led researchers to conclude the influenza virus jumped directly from birds to humans, and swine caught the disease from humans..  A large factor in the worldwide occurrence of the flu was increased travel. The animals suffered rapidly progressive respiratory failure and death through a cytokine storm. Even though the Spanish flu … ", This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 14:09. In Philadelphia, for example, 4,597 people died in the week ending 16 October, but by 11 November, influenza had almost disappeared from the city.  In 2014, historian Mark Humphries argued that the mobilization of 96,000 Chinese laborers to work behind the British and French lines might have been the source of the pandemic. King Alfonso XIII was among an estimated eight million Spaniards infected out of a total population of just under 21 million.  Other signs and symptoms reported included spontaneous mouth and nosebleeds, miscarriages for pregnant women, a peculiar smell, teeth, and hair falling, delirium, dizziness, insomnia, loss of hearing or smell, blurred vision, and impaired color vision.  Another common misdiagnosis was typhus, which was common in circumstances of social upheaval, and was therefore also affecting Russia in the aftermath of the October Revolution. Maritime quarantines were declared on islands such as Iceland, Australia, and American Samoa, saving many lives. 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To maintain morale, World War I censors minimized these early reports. The Queen has relocated to Windsor Castle and cancelled public engagements where large crowds were expected to gather, to enforce social distancing.  The virus also killed people directly by causing massive hemorrhages and edema in the lungs. Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. , Even in areas where mortality was low, so many adults were incapacitated that much of everyday life was hampered. Then, the king of Spain — Alfonso XIII — and several other members of his government contracted the flu.  For example, the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera was prohibited from reporting daily death tolls. King Alfonso XIII of Spain. He provides data that the viral waves hit the Central Powers before the Allied powers, and that both morbidity and mortality in Germany and Austria were considerably higher than in Britain and France. , Additionally, the outbreak coincided with the deaths and media focus on the First World War.  Hannoun considered several alternative hypotheses of origin, such as Spain, Kansas, and Brest, as being possible, but not likely. However, John Barry stated in his 2004 book The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague In History that researchers have found no evidence to support this position.  After reaching Australia in July, the wave started to recede.  This huge death toll resulted from an extremely high infection rate of up to 50% and the extreme severity of the symptoms, suspected to be caused by cytokine storms. These factors were school opening and closing, temperature changes throughout the outbreak, and human behavioral changes in response to the outbreak. , A 2006 study in the Journal of Political Economy found that "cohorts in utero during the pandemic displayed reduced educational attainment, increased rates of physical disability, lower income, lower socioeconomic status, and higher transfer payments received compared with other birth cohorts. A third wave came in the winter of 1919, however by summer of that year, very few cases were reported. , From Europe, the second wave swept through Russia in a southwest–northeast diagonal front, as well as being brought to Arkhangelsk by the North Russia intervention, and then spread throughout Asia following the Russian Civil War and the Trans-Siberian railway, reaching Iran (where it spread through the holy city of Mashhad), and then later India in September, as well as China and Japan in October. News of the sickness first made headlines in Madrid in late-May 1918, and coverage only increased after the Spanish King Alfonso XIII came down with a nasty case a week later. After the lethal second wave struck in late 1918, new cases dropped abruptly.  An early estimate from 1927 put global mortality at 21.6 million. Left: A U.S. Red Cross employee wears a face mask in an attempt to help decrease the spread of influenza. , Many businesses in the entertainment and service industries suffered losses in revenue, while the healthcare industry reported profit gains. Soldiers with a mild strain stayed where they were, while the severely ill were sent on crowded trains to crowded field hospitals, spreading the deadlier virus.  Tafari Makonnen (the future Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia) was one of the first Ethiopians who contracted influenza but survived. The Spanish flu, also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus. The first wave, which made people notice the flu, occurred in July 1918. In other countries, this outbreak in Spain was reported in the news with no mention of what was happening locally, which made it seem unique to that country, and the name Spanish flu was born. Spain maintained its neutrality during World War One (WW1) and news from there was uncensored. , In Istanbul, capital of the Ottoman Empire, 6,403 to 10,000 died, giving the city a mortality rate of at least 0,56%. This gave rise to the name "Spanish" flu. In February 1915 German U-boats began to sink merchant vessels in the Atlantic and Mediterranean and this had a disastrous … The clincher was the announcement in early October that Spain’s King Alfonso XIII had come down with the flu, along with several members of his cabinet.  The actual enforcement of various restrictions varied. Humphries, of the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, based his conclusions on newly unearthed records.  According to historian John M. Barry, the most vulnerable of all – "those most likely, of the most likely", to die – were pregnant women.  By the end of the pandemic, the isolated island of Marajó, in Brazil's Amazon River Delta had not reported an outbreak. King Alfonso XIII was among an estimated eight million Spaniards infected out of a total population of just under 21 million. A 2009 study in Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses based on data from fourteen European countries estimated a total of 2.64 million excess deaths in Europe attributable to the Spanish flu during the major 1918–1919 phase of the pandemic, in line with the three prior studies from 1991, 2002, and 2006 that calculated a European death toll of between 2 million and 2.3 million.  The war, however, had initially been expected to end quickly but lasted for four years by the time the pandemic struck.  The newspapers of the time were also generally paternalistic and worried about mass panic. King Alfonso XIII of Spain (r. 1886-1931). As the article explained, “this allowed the disease to spread almost freely in Europe and the US in the early stage. The Queen also cancelled a state visit from the Emperor and Empress of Japan which was expected this Spring. The first confirmed cases originated in the United States. , Academic Andrew Price-Smith has made the argument that the virus helped tip the balance of power in the latter days of the war towards the Allied cause. , On 18 January 2007, Kobasa et al. The disease gained VIP status when the King of Spain, Alfonso XIII, became very ill and it was crowned ‘Spanish Flu’.  By 11 March 1918, the virus had reached Queens, New York. Home of the Daily and Sunday Express.  After this, death would follow within hours or days due to the lungs being filled with fluids. The study did find evidence through phylogenetic analyses that the virus likely had a North American origin, though it was not conclusive.  New York City alone reported 6,374 deaths between December 1919 and April 1920, almost twice the number of the first wave in spring 1918. , Due to World War I, many countries engaged in wartime censorship, and suppressed reporting of the pandemic. Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902.  Scientists offer several possible explanations for the high mortality rate of the 1918 influenza pandemic, including a severe 6-year climate anomaly that affected the migration of disease vectors and increased the likelihood of the spread of the disease through bodies of water. It was named as neutral Spain had no need to censor its newspapers and therefore the first reports of the ‘flu appeared in Spanish newspapers, particularly as the Spanish King Alfonso XIII was seriously ill with the disease. , Several Pacific island territories were hit particularly hard. , The 1918 Spanish flu was the first of two pandemics caused by H1N1 influenza A virus; the second was the 2009 swine flu pandemic. Alfonso XIII, the King of Spain, ruled a socially divided country with most of its close to 20,000,000 citizens impoverished because of the lack of trade and supplies that resulted from World War I. Spain remained neutral in the conflict, and so newspapers there were free to report on the virus’ effects, including the infection of the county’s King Alfonso XIII.  Overall American mortality rates were in the tens of thousands during the first six months of 1919.  For example, the British authorities at Hong Kong and Canton reported a mortality rate from influenza at a rate of 0.25% and 0.32%, much lower than the reported mortality rate of other cities in Asia, such as Calcutta or Bombay, where influenza was much more devastating. , The second wave of the 1918 pandemic was much more deadly than the first.  This has led some historians to label the Spanish flu a "forgotten pandemic".  The celebrations of the Armistice of 11 November 1918 also caused outbreaks in Lima and Nairobi, but by December the wave was mostly over. 1918. (And in Spain, they didn't call it the Spanish flu — …  In Sweden, 34,000 died. Oxford and his team postulated that a precursor virus, harbored in birds, mutated and then migrated to pigs kept near the front. newspaper archive. Despite its name, historical and epidemiological data cannot identify the geographic origin of the Spanish flu. The French newspaper Le Figaro described the young king as "the happiest and best-loved of all the rulers of the earth". The Spanish flu virus was persistent and wiped out a huge proportion of the globe during its deadliest second wave in the autumn of 1918. Just after he was born, he was carried naked to the Spanish prime minister Práxedes Mateo on a silver tray. Their modeling results showed that all three factors are important, but human behavioral responses showed the most significant effects. , In Britain, as many as 250,000 died; in France, more than 400,000. With the world’s attention drawn to the suffering of King Alfonso XIII, who nearly died from the flu, it seemed as though Spain was the centre of the outbreak.  Native American tribes were particularly hard hit. He found archival evidence that a respiratory illness that struck northern China (where the laborers came from) in November 1917 was identified a year later by Chinese health officials as identical to the Spanish flu. (2007) reported that monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) infected with the recreated flu strain exhibited classic symptoms of the 1918 pandemic, and died from cytokine storms – an overreaction of the immune system. And the shocking news of the epidemic reached other European nations. , One of the few regions of the world seemingly less affected by the Spanish flu pandemic was China, where several studies have documented a comparatively mild flu season in 1918. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFTaubenbergerMorens2006 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBarry2004 (, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFSpinney2018 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFPattersonPyle1991 (, David Arnold, "Dearth and the Modern Empire: The 1918–19 Influenza Epidemic in India,". 500 million people around the world were infected with the Spanish Flu, while the estimated number of deaths ranges from 17 million to 100 million.  A six-year climate anomaly (1914–1919) brought cold, marine air to Europe, drastically changing its weather, as documented by eyewitness accounts and instrumental records, reaching as far as the Gallipoli campaign, in Turkey, where ANZAC troops suffered extremely cold temperatures despite the normally Mediterranean climate of the region. This data was collected by the Chinese Maritime Customs Service, which was largely staffed by non-Chinese foreigners, such as the British, French, and other European colonial officials in China. The Spanish monarch King Alfonso XIII was one of the first victims of the pandemic.  Historian Nancy Bristow has argued that the pandemic, when combined with the increasing number of women attending college, contributed to the success of women in the field of nursing. , The first estimate of the Chinese death toll was made in 1991 by Patterson and Pyle, which estimated a toll of between 5 and 9 million. Government actions in the early stages of the virus' arrival in the country in September 1918 are believed to have unintentionally accelerated its spread throughout the country.  An estimated date for its appearance in mammalian hosts has been put at the period 1882–1913.  Saint Helena also reported no deaths.  The excess mortality rate in the U.K. has been estimated at 0.28%-0.4%, far below this European average. Med.  The duration of the pandemic and the war could have also played a role. Express. Spain who remained neutral during the First World War, and didn’t have the same wartime censorship, was able to report that King Alfonso XIII was gravely ill, but made a full recovery. The name ‘Spanish flu’ is misleading; it originated because the illness was first reported in the uncensored Spanish press (that covered among others the grave condition of king Alfonso XIII). By contrast, Governor John Martin Poyer prevented the flu from reaching neighboring American Samoa by imposing a blockade.  One group of researchers recovered the virus from the bodies of frozen victims and transfected animals with it.  An estimate from 1991 states that the virus killed between 25 and 39 million people.
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