It has been used to make sculptures and carvings for millennia. Variation is to be expected. Maple wood grain (Sapwood and heartwood on the same) maple wood floor.jpg 650 × 650; 61 KB Masonit baksida.jpg 2,568 × 1,704; 1.27 MB Masonit framsida.jpg 2,510 × 1,665; 650 KB [27] The latter are more water-soluble and usually are absent in the resin. Bureau, Oxford, U.K., Tech. For example, cricket bats are typically made of white willow. It consists of cells, and the cell walls are composed of micro-fibrils of cellulose (40–50%) and hemicellulose (15–25%) impregnated with lignin (15–30%).[15]. Symbiotic bacteria in Xylophaga may play a role in the degradation of sunken wood. Dominant uses were for furniture and building construction. If the rings are narrow, more of them are required than where they are wide. Related Species: Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum) Related Articles: Mahogany Mixups: the Lowdown; Restricted and Endangered Wood Species; Scans/Pictures: [26], Aside from the structural polymers, i.e. If ease of working is prized, wood should be chosen with regard to its uniformity of texture and straightness of grain, which will in most cases occur when there is little contrast between the latewood of one season's growth and the earlywood of the next. It is mainly five-carbon sugars that are linked in an irregular manner, in contrast to the cellulose. These forests disappeared in the millennia before Christ’s birth about two thousand years ago. Such wood derivatives are widely used: wood fibers are an important component of most paper, and cellulose is used as a component of some synthetic materials. The wood from conifers (e.g. [29] The amount and composition of extractives differs between tree species, various parts of the same tree, and depends on genetic factors and growth conditions, such as climate and geography. The black check in western hemlock is the result of insect attacks. Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. [6], The year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at the time a tree was cut.[7]. A similar effect occurs in the softening action of water on rawhide, paper, or cloth. The width of ring is not nearly so important as the proportion and nature of the latewood in the ring. English Translation of “utile” | The official Collins French-English Dictionary online. Some extractives are surface-active substances and unavoidably affect the surface properties of paper, such as water adsorption, friction and strength. There is a strong relationship between the properties of wood and the properties of the particular tree that yielded it. The extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size, number, and condition. About the Project; Contact; Browse Woods (by common name) Browse Woods (by scientific name) General Wood Information. Wood movement might play a … [27] Analogous content is present in the so-called exudate produced by trees in response to mechanical damage or after being attacked by insects or fungi. Sawdust (or wood shavings) is a by-product or waste product of woodworking operations such as sawing, sanding, milling, planing, and routing.It is composed of small chippings of wood. An extreme example is the case of a completely dry spruce block 5 cm in section, which will sustain a permanent load four times as great as a green (undried) block of the same size will. 2150 p. Elliott, G.K. 1970. Softwood lignin is mainly derived from coniferyl alcohol. A solid wood floor is a floor laid with planks or battens created from a single piece of timber, usually a hardwood. Upon drying, wood shrinks and its density increases. It is remarkable that the inner heartwood of old trees remains as sound as it usually does, since in many cases it is hundreds, and in a few instances thousands, of years old. [2] As an abundant, carbon-neutral[citation needed] renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. Utile is used in general construction and paneling. These operations can be performed by woodworking machinery, portable power tools or by use of hand tools. Discover over 1920 of our best selection of 1 on with top-selling 1 brands. Knots do not necessarily influence the stiffness of structural timber, this will depend on the size and location. Some species begin to form heartwood very early in life, so having only a thin layer of live sapwood, while in others the change comes slowly. Sapwood is relatively thicker in the upper portion of the trunk of a tree than near the base, because the age and the diameter of the upper sections are less. Also in the Meliceae botanical family, these are close cousins of one another from the same genus, Entandrophragma, and it is often difficult to tell them apart. Appearance : Interlocked, irregular grain with medium texture. In many uses of wood, total strength is not the main consideration. yew) are harder than many hardwoods. Stumps of old longleaf pines are often dug, split into small pieces and sold as kindling for fires. Wood has long been used as an artistic medium. Plywood is a material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another. In a smaller tree, the reverse may be true. [40] Approximately 100 million cubic meters of wood was consumed for this purpose in 1991. [citation needed] The density of wood varies with species. Wood Identification Website One noteworthy example of this trend is the family of golf clubs commonly known as the woods, the heads of which were traditionally made of persimmon wood in the early days of the game of golf, but are now generally made of metal or (especially in the case of drivers) carbon-fiber composites. It is usually lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring, and is known as earlywood or springwood. [3] The trends suggest that particle board and fiber board will overtake plywood. Utile (Entandrophragma utile) Type: Hardwood. Otherwise the color of wood is no indication of strength. Within the same species the cross-sectional area of the sapwood is very roughly proportional to the size of the crown of the tree. Sometimes trees (of species that do form heartwood) grown in the open may become of considerable size, 30 cm (12 in) or more in diameter, before any heartwood begins to form, for example, in second-growth hickory, or open-grown pines. Little is known about the bacteria that degrade cellulose. Structural material that resembles ordinary, "dicot" or conifer timber in its gross handling characteristics is produced by a number of monocot plants, and these also are colloquially called wood. The density of a wood correlates with its strength (mechanical properties). It is common to classify wood as either softwood or hardwood. Sipo Mahogany (commonly referred to as either just “Sipo” or “Utile”) is an African wood that is considered to be the closest, aesthetically, to Genuine Mahogany (although not a true “Swietenia”). oak) is called hardwood. These compounds contribute to various physical and chemical properties of the wood, such as wood color, fragnance, durability, acoustic properties, hygroscopicity, adhesion, and drying. Strength is comparable to European Beech. I originally worked on this wood without checking this data base and I made a beautiful mechanical pencil out of it but I found it weird how when turning the wood I smelled a strong pickle smell funny to see that is common. As a tree reaches maturity its crown becomes more open and the annual wood production is lessened, thereby reducing still more the width of the growth rings. Shop the top 25 most popular 1 at the best prices! Nearly all boats were made out of wood until the late 19th century, and wood remains in common use today in boat construction. Water occurs in living wood in three locations, namely: In heartwood it occurs only in the first and last forms. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a roughly circular "solid" (usually darker) piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows" (parts and rejoins). Utile: Arborele ... Lilly Wood and the Prick Ultima editare a paginii a fost efectuată la 5 august 2010, ora 01:25. Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. In some decorative applications, wood with knots may be desirable to add visual interest. Both Sapele and Utile have banded parenchyma (visible as horizontal lines in the accompanying scan) that occur consistently throughout the wood—not just at the annual growth boundaries. It is also used for tool handles and cutlery, such as chopsticks, toothpicks, and other utensils, like the wooden spoon and pencil. Read Utile Wood reviews and Utile Wood ratings – Buy Utile Wood with confidence on AliExpress! Moisture content electronic monitoring can also enhance next generation wood protection.[42]. Timell, T.E. [8] However, there are major differences, depending on the kind of wood (see below). Wood has always been used extensively for furniture, such as chairs and beds. Continuing our Mahogany species review, we stay on the African continent and look at Sapele and Utile (also called Sipo). Today a wider variety of woods is used: solid wood doors are often made from poplar, small-knotted pine, and Douglas fir. With heartwood that is pink when first cut before darkening to a mahogany-red over time, this timber has a medium and uniform texture with a natural lustre that finishes nicely. It is almost twice as dense as most woods and up to five times harder. Utile is a high class red hardwood, better than Sapele in terms of stability and appearance at little extra cost. Categorii: Utilizate • Dorite • Necategorizate • Nefolosite • Aleatorii • Toate categoriile For example, it is sometimes much darker. Elm in particular was used for this purpose as it resisted decay as long as it was kept wet (it also served for water pipe before the advent of more modern plumbing). The wood is also used in boat construction and planking, domestic flooring, musical instruments and sports equipment. Further developments include new lignin glue applications, recyclable food packaging, rubber tire replacement applications, anti-bacterial medical agents, and high strength fabrics or composites. This is particularly the case in the choice of hickory for handles and spokes. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are likely to be indistinct or absent. Of much less importance are plants such as Pandanus, Dracaena and Cordyline. From houses to boats and other shelters, as well as furniture and décor, the construction industry has exploited the potential of woodto t… The general effect of the water content upon the wood substance is to render it softer and more pliable. However, other processes such as decay or insect invasion can also discolor wood, even in woody plants that do not form heartwood, which may lead to confusion. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Within a knot, the direction of the wood (grain direction) is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. Mahogany is a commercially important lumber prized for its beauty, durability, and color, and used for paneling and to make furniture, boats, musical instruments and other items. In ring-porous woods, each season's growth is always well defined, because the large pores formed early in the season abut on the denser tissue of the year before. 44 p. "System for remotely monitoring moisture content on wooden elements" I Arakistain, O Munne EP Patent EPO1382108.0, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Prayer Bead with the Adoration of the Magi and the Crucifixion, "Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations", "A Simple Type of Wood in Two Early Devonian Plants", "A History of Wood from the Stone Age to the 21st Century", "Trends in recent temperature and radial tree growth spanning 2000 years across northwest Eurasia", "Wood Properties Growth and Structure 2015", "Timber Plus Toolbox, Selecting timber, Characteristics of timber, Structure of hardwoods", "Xylem Embolism in ring-porous, diffuse-porous, and coniferous trees of Northern Utah and Interior Alaska", The Wood Handbook: Wood as an engineering material, "What are the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo? In white pines there is not much contrast between the different parts of the ring, and as a result the wood is very uniform in texture and is easy to work. Wood of the Month: Utile Is a Popular Choice for Boat Construction and More By Jo-Ann Kaiser FAMILY NAME Entandrophragma utile of the family Meliaceae. Such resin-saturated heartwood is called "fat lighter". Many other types of sports and recreation equipment, such as skis, ice hockey sticks, lacrosse sticks and archery bows, were commonly made of wood in the past, but have since been replaced with more modern materials such as aluminium, titanium or composite materials such as fiberglass and carbon fiber. The leading importer of mahogany is the United States, followed by Britain; while the largest exporter today is Peru, which surpassed Brazil after that country banned mahogany exports in 2001. Rich in colour and reasonably strong, Utile’s grain is generally unremarkable and lacking in any defining characteristics, which makes it easier to machine than other timbers in the same class. In ring-porous woods of good growth, it is usually the latewood in which the thick-walled, strength-giving fibers are most abundant. As the tree gets larger, the sapwood must necessarily become thinner or increase materially in volume. This is a list of woods, most commonly used in the timber and lumber trade. Conversely, some softwoods (e.g. This table is made of wood. In conifers, at least, rate of growth alone does not determine the proportion of the two portions of the ring, for in some cases the wood of slow growth is very hard and heavy, while in others the opposite is true. In temperate softwoods, there often is a marked difference between latewood and earlywood. Knots affect the technical properties of the wood, usually reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain,[citation needed] but may be exploited for visual effect. Engineered wood products are becoming a bigger part of the construction industry. Commonwealth For. In diffuse-porous woods, as has been stated, the vessels or pores are even-sized, so that the water conducting capability is scattered throughout the ring instead of collected in the earlywood. The annual rings of growth are for many years quite wide, but later they become narrower and narrower. Of these, bamboo, botanically a member of the grass family, has considerable economic importance, larger culms being widely used as a building and construction material and in the manufacture of engineered flooring, panels and veneer. Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Actinobacteria, Clostridia, and Bacteroidetes have been detected in wood submerged for over a year. Such variation is very largely the result of rate of growth. If a heavy piece of pine is compared with a lightweight piece it will be seen at once that the heavier one contains a larger proportion of latewood than the other, and is therefore showing more clearly demarcated growth rings. Upon the whole, however, as a tree gets larger in diameter the width of the growth rings decreases. [20] Variation of specific gravity within the bole of a tree can occur in either the horizontal or vertical direction. Some experiments on very resinous longleaf pine specimens indicate an increase in strength, due to the resin which increases the strength when dry. Wood derivatives can be used for kinds of flooring, for example laminate flooring. Where the differences between the four seasons are distinct, e.g. In species which show a distinct difference between heartwood and sapwood the natural color of heartwood is usually darker than that of the sapwood, and very frequently the contrast is conspicuous (see section of yew log above). 1986. Several factors may be involved. Singapore), these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. [20], Wood density is determined by multiple growth and physiological factors compounded into “one fairly easily measured wood characteristic” (Elliott 1970).[21]. Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, and roots. Adding a woodstove or fireplace to a home is often felt to add ambiance and warmth. Recent use of wood has been enhanced by the addition of steel and bronze into construction. Another major plant group that produces material that often is called wood are the palms. Mahagon je označení pro dřevo některých druhů tropických stromů z čeledi zederachovité (Meliaceae).Za pravý mahagon je považováno dřevo stromů rodu svietenie (Swietenia), nazývané také americký mahagon.Dřevo příbuzného afrického rodu khaja (Khaya) je známo jako africký mahagon.Oba rody jsou blízce příbuzné a poskytují dřevo s podobným vzhledem i vlastnostmi. As a tree grows, lower branches often die, and their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. The rest of the ring, produced in summer, is made up of smaller vessels and a much greater proportion of wood fibers. In a large log the sapwood, because of the time in the life of the tree when it was grown, may be inferior in hardness, strength, and toughness to equally sound heartwood from the same log. 1667, John Milton, “Book X”, in Paradise Lost. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. Structures built of fat lighter are almost impervious to rot and termites; however they are very flammable. Utile is used for the same purpose as sapele, ie, furniture, cabinets, joinery, shop-fitting, boat-building, as veneer for plywood, and for decoration. The destruction of the cedar forests of the Middle East is told in the oldest know, surviving written story in the world: … All wood in a tree is first formed as sapwood. Wood to be used for construction work is commonly known as lumber in North America. Utile typically grows in West African countries such as Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Gabon and Uganda. 2000 onwards. Other Names: Also known as abebay, afau-konkonti, assie, efuodwe, kosi-kosi, mebrou zuiri, okeong, and sipo. Wood is used to make buildings and furniture, and also for art. Wood extractives display different activities, some of them are produced in response to wounds, and some of them participate in natural defense against insects and fungi.[31]. Currently popular pronunciations. The term heartwood derives solely from its position and not from any vital importance to the tree. Sipo, utile (Entandrophragma utile) Tiama, (Entandrophragma angolense) Kosipo, (Entandrophragma candollei) Mountain mahogany, bottle tree (Entandrophragma caudatumi) Indian mahogany, chickrassy, chittagong wood (Chukrasia velutina) Spanish Cedar, cedro, Brazilian mahogany (Cedrela odorata) Light bosse, pink mahogany (Guarea cedrata) [17] Some species, such as walnut and cherry, are on the border between the two classes, forming an intermediate group.[18]. [41] In applications where wood is painted, such as skirting boards, fascia boards, door frames and furniture, resins present in the timber may continue to 'bleed' through to the surface of a knot for months or even years after manufacture and show as a yellow or brownish stain. paikkoja. Firewood is a fuel. Wood Identification Website You can refer to one or several of these areas as woods , and this is the usual form in American English. Knots which occur near the ends of a beam do not weaken it. This is produced by deposits in the heartwood of chemical substances, so that a dramatic color variation does not imply a significant difference in the mechanical properties of heartwood and sapwood, although there may be a marked biochemical difference between the two. Consequently, the sapwood of an old tree, and particularly of a forest-grown tree, will be freer from knots than the inner heartwood. Drying produces a decided increase in the strength of wood, particularly in small specimens. New domestic housing in many parts of the world today is commonly made from timber-framed construction. The Timber Durability chart contains 5 classes of timber, with each class determining how long each timber listed will last – these are all to BS EN 350-2:1994 – Durability of wood and wood-based products. This may be briefly summed up in the general statement that the more rapid the growth or the wider the rings of growth, the heavier, harder, stronger, and stiffer the wood. Wood unsuitable for construction in its native form may be broken down mechanically (into fibers or chips) or chemically (into cellulose) and used as a raw material for other building materials, such as engineered wood, as well as chipboard, hardboard, and medium-density fiberboard (MDF). Most extractives can be categorized into three groups: aliphatic compounds, terpenes and phenolic compounds. Engineered wood products, glued building products "engineered" for application-specific performance requirements, are often used in construction and industrial applications. In hard pines, on the other hand, the latewood is very dense and is deep-colored, presenting a very decided contrast to the soft, straw-colored earlywood. Every broken limb or root, or deep wound from fire, insects, or falling timber, may afford an entrance for decay, which, once started, may penetrate to all parts of the trunk. Different pieces of wood cut from a large tree may differ decidedly, particularly if the tree is big and mature. Small knots, however, may be located along the neutral plane of a beam and increase the strength by preventing longitudinal shearing. Although extractives represent a small fraction of the wood content, usually less than 10%, they are extraordinarily diverse and thus characterize the chemistry of the wood species. Pale yellow sapwood is clearly demarcated from the heartwood. Pagini din categoria „Nașteri în 1936” Următoarele 200 pagini aparțin acestei categorii, dintr-un total de 374. Conversely, when there is a clear demarcation there may not be a noticeable difference in structure within the growth ring. As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of which was commercial. Pagini din categoria „Filme regizate de Sam Wood” Următoarele 3 pagini aparțin acestei categorii, dintr-un total de 3. [39] In Medieval Europe oak was the wood of choice for all wood construction, including beams, walls, doors, and floors. Also, Ipe can be difficult to glue properly, and surface preparation prior to gluing is recommended. In specimens that show a very large proportion of latewood it may be noticeably more porous and weigh considerably less than the latewood in pieces that contain less latewood. Required Cookies & Technologies. They are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The larvae of many insects bore into the trees and their tunnels remain indefinitely as sources of weakness. Comments: Sometimes called Sipo Mahogany, or simply Sipo, Utile is in the Meliaceae family, and is somewhat related to the true mahoganies found in the Swietenia genus. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees,[1] or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. Some trees, such as southern oaks, maintain the same width of ring for hundreds of years. This is evidenced by the fact that a tree can thrive with its heart completely decayed. Ipe (spelled ipe and pronounced “ee-pay”), also called Brazilian walnut, is a beautiful exotic wood from South America. It is an organic material – a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. The reddish-brown streaks so common in hickory and certain other woods are mostly the result of injury by birds. They may be used in both residential and commercial buildings as structural and aesthetic materials. Richter, H. G. and M. J. Dallwitz. Commun. The following tables list the mechanical properties of wood and lumber plant species, including bamboo. Within an individual tree, the variation in wood density is often as great as or even greater than that between different trees (Timell 1986). Many types of sports equipment are made of wood, or were constructed of wood in the past. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. It is not only the proportion of latewood, but also its quality, that counts. The single most revealing property of wood as an indicator of wood quality is specific gravity (Timell 1986),[20] as both pulp yield and lumber strength are determined by it. Ordinary sap-staining is due to fungal growth, but does not necessarily produce a weakening effect. Abnormal discoloration of wood often denotes a diseased condition, indicating unsoundness. However, after a few days, the wood would start pushing the oil back out on the surface over the period of days or weeks. Used as a material for construction, to manufacture various items, etc. Woodin piirikunta, piirikunta Ohiossa, Yhdysvalloissa; henkilöitä. We operate in more than 60 countries, employing around 60,000 people, with revenues of over $10 billion. The greatest strength increase due to drying is in the ultimate crushing strength, and strength at elastic limit in endwise compression; these are followed by the modulus of rupture, and stress at elastic limit in cross-bending, while the modulus of elasticity is least affected. Wide-ringed wood is often called "second-growth", because the growth of the young timber in open stands after the old trees have been removed is more rapid than in trees in a closed forest, and in the manufacture of articles where strength is an important consideration such "second-growth" hardwood material is preferred. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin (lignocellulose), wood contains a large variety of non-structural constituents, composed of low molecular weight organic compounds, called extractives. One of the densest woods is black ironwood. Utile (Entandrophragma utile) Walnut Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Persian Walnut (Juglans regia) Brazilian walnut; Not a walnut see Ipe above. Solid hardwood flooring is usually cheaper than engineered timbers and damaged areas can be sanded down and refinished repeatedly, the number of times being limited only by the thickness of wood above the tongue. Since in most uses of wood, knots are defects that weaken the timber and interfere with its ease of working and other properties, it follows that a given piece of sapwood, because of its position in the tree, may well be stronger than a piece of heartwood from the same tree. Glued engineered wood products are manufactured by bonding together wood strands, veneers, lumber or other forms of wood fiber with glue to form a larger, more efficient composite structural unit.[40]. pronouncekiwi - How To Pronounce Utile (wood) pronouncekiwi. Sipo Mahogany (commonly referred to as either just "Sipo" or "Utile") is an African wood that is considered to be the closest, aesthetically, to Genuine Mahogany (although not a true "Swietenia"). Sapwood (or alburnum[13]) is the younger, outermost wood; in the growing tree it is living wood,[14] and its principal functions are to conduct water from the roots to the leaves and to store up and give back according to the season the reserves prepared in the leaves. Most wood extractives are lipophilic and only a little part is water-soluble. Wood voi tarkoittaa seuraavia: . After dinner Alice slipped away for a walk in the woods with Artie. Generally, the softwood is richer in extractives than the hardwood. Stiffness and elastic strength are more dependent upon the sound wood than upon localized defects. If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will likely be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar. In 1991 approximately 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Minimum order length 2.4 running metres, all lengths supplied as running lengths. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons, furniture and paper. Botanical Name: Entandrophragma utile. The strength is in the walls, not the cavities. A knot on the upper side is compressed, while one on the lower side is subjected to tension. Wood is also commonly used as shuttering material to form the mold into which concrete is poured during reinforced concrete construction. These three components are interwoven, and direct covalent linkages exist between the lignin and the hemicellulose. 8. Utile Wood has an interlocking grain like other African species, giving it an alternating light and dark banded look. The latewood of good oak is dark colored and firm, and consists mostly of thick-walled fibers which form one-half or more of the wood. Spruce impregnated with crude resin and dried is also greatly increased in strength thereby. Since wood is hydroscopic (it acquires and loses moisture from the ambient conditions around it) this potential instability effectively limits the length and width of the boards. Willow Black willow (Salix nigra) Cricket-bat willow (Salix alba 'Coerulea') White willow (Salix alba) Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) Pranala luar. With all this material, the structure and composition of the processed raw material is quite different from ordinary wood. Hardwood is preferred over softwood because it creates less smoke and burns longer. The baseball bats which are legal for use in Major League Baseball are frequently made of ash wood or hickory, and in recent years have been constructed from maple even though that wood is somewhat more fragile.
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