Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theory, or more broadly, by the politics of feminism. Criticism in the strict sense also arose in Europe in antiquity, as may be seen from the early philosophers’ opinions about Homer and the comparison of the tragedies of Aeschylus and Euripides in Aristophanes’ comedy The Frogs (405 B.C.). Later the “young mythologists”—M. The most important aspect of the speculative edifice was the conception of theory as knowledge of the laws of development of the concrete. ), the Chinese Book of Legends (Shu Ching, 12th to fifth centuries B.C. We have literary criticism and we have literary theory too. However, how can the literary theory be established without an act of literary criticism? In literary theory it provides knowledge of the structure of any literary work (general poetics). The act of literary criticism generally concerns with comparison, analysis, and evaluation of literary texts. Primary attention was given to style, that is, to the linguistic realization of artistic effects. This website is the outcome of the project undertaken at Department of English, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University (Bhavnagar - Gujarat). 2, 1949, p. 6). In Russian literary studies the place of ancient Russian literature was affirmed; philosophical criticism had not viewed ancient Russian literature as being part of the mainstream of European literary development and had therefore excluded it from its aesthetic system. Drawing on Belinskii’s legacy, revolutionary-democratic criticism attempted to restore the broad philosophical and epistemological context of literary research: “If it is important to collect and study facts, it is equally important to try to grasp their meaning. It also minimized the importance of artistic structure since art was dissolved in the general world view of an epoch. There are three main areas of study: literary theory, the history of literature, and literary criticism in the strict sense (literaturnaia kritika). Written by Alok Mishra for English Literature Education, Proudly serving literature students. In the 18th century the first courses in literary history were given, notably G. Tiraboschi’s History of Italian Literature (1772–82), T. War-ton’s History of English Poetry (1774–81), and J. Literary criticism denotes action and a literary theory denotes abstract, an idea, a set of rules. Literary theory and criticism originated in early antiquity in the form of mythological concepts, for example, the reflection in myths of the classical differentiation between the arts. In general, contemporary literary theory and criticism has failed to resolve such key problems as literature’s relation to public life and the interrelationship between artistic form and content. For instance, the literary theory with the name of Structuralism must have been the result of an extensive act of literary criticism with an intent to establish a theory that certain elements in many literary works are like a pattern – set of characters, ideas for plots, themes etc. In Europe the first concepts of art and literature were developed by the ancient thinkers. The problem of language, extending beyond stylistics and rhetoric, became the general theoretical problem of establishing modern European languages as legitimate material of poetry. Marxist theorists use traditional techniques of literary analysis but subordinate aesthetic concerns to the final social and political meanings of literature. However, reader-response criticism can take a number of different … Rather than espousing a single ideology or intellectual framework, it canvasses a wide range of scholarly concerns. Opposing vulgar sociologism, Marxist literary theory and criticism demonstrated not only the distinctive nature of art and the laws of its development but also the dialectical conception of the social and historical causality of art and its social function. The romantic view that different criteria existed developed into the concept of different cultural periods expressing the spirit of a particular people or era. First, mediated, intellectual knowledge was disparaged in favor of intuitive knowledge as applied to both the creative act and to judgments about art (H. Bergson’s Laughter, 1900). Literary Theory and Criticism. Well, for now, this is what it is and I will have to end this article here. The nature of the aesthetic and the distinction between it and the moral and cognitive were established philosophically by I. Kant. The 1972 resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU On Literary-Artistic Criticism emphasizes the importance of criticism in the strict sense (kritika) and of literary theory and criticism (literaturovedenie) in the cultural life of the Soviet people today. Potebnia’s idea of the “inner form” of the word stimulated the dialectical study of the problem of the artistic image and anticipated the later study of poetic structure in relation to its function. It uses the principles and ideology of feminism to critique the language of literature. 2, 1949, p. 264). In this article, I will focus on some of the key differences between literary theory and literary criticism. The very first thing one should know before getting into the details of this idea, what is the difference between literary criticism and literary theory, is that there is not only one difference between these two concepts but many. Contemporary Soviet literary theory and criticism is a science that studies all aspects of literature and its origins and social ties. And if we have before us a really great artist, he must have reflected in his work at least some of the essential aspects of the revolution” (Sobr. The prevailing tripartite division of man’s history into antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance (the term was first used by G. Vasari in his Lives, 1550) anticipated G. Vico’s theory of cycles and the doctrine of stages of cultural development expressed by the romantics and found in the dialectical philosophical systems of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His series of articles on A. S. Pushkin (1843–46) was essentially the first course devoted to the history of contemporary Russian literature. In recent decades research in poetics has aimed at identifying the form-creating, content aspects of literature. Interpreting art from the point of view of historical materialism, Marxist literary study from the outset criticized not only positivist (naturalistic) and subjective-idealist trends in modern literary theory and criticism but also the formalistic and antirealistic aesthetic notions of the decadents. Along with classical poetics there developed rhetoric, initially the study of oratory and prose in general, for example, Aristotle’s Rhetoric, the works of Isocrates and Cicero, and Quintilian’s The Training of an Orator. Through the Prague linguistic circle the formalist school had a significant influence on literary theory and criticism throughout the world, particularly on the “new criticism” and on structuralism, both of which also subscribed to T. S. Eliot’s ideas. After the Human Culture, Theory and Criticism in the 21st Century. Guidelines for solving this problem in terms of Marxist literary theory and criticism were provided by Lenin’s doctrine of “two national cultures in each national culture” (that of the ruling classes and democratic and socialist culture), as well as by his defense of the cultural heritage of the past, which he developed in the course of his struggle against Proletkult. Thus, the subject of historical poetics was established as the study of the development of poetic forms and of the laws by which “a particular social content is embodied in certain inevitable poetic forms,” such as genre, epithet, or plot. Compiled by 275 specialists from around the world, the … Sociological criticism: Like historical criticism, sociological criticism examines literature in the cultural, economic, and political context in which it is written or received. The third manifestation of the antipositivist tendencies was psychoanalysis (S. Freud), which introduced the unconscious into explanations of art. The view of the classical genres as “eternal” canons coexisted with the sense of dynamism and incompleteness that was characteristic of the Renaissance. . Finally, with E. Joung (Description of Original Works, 1759) and G. E. Lessing (Hamburg Dramaturgy, 1767–69), this tendency grew into an attack on all normative poetics, thus opening the way for the aesthetic and literary theories of the romantics. There were attempts not only to reject the system of traditional literary categories (types of poetry, genres) but also to prove that they were fundamentally inapplicable to art. As they develop and grow increasingly complex, however, they may set independent scholarly goals and acquire independent cultural functions. The eContent uploaded on this website is on Literary Theory and Criticism… Lenin’s “In Memory of Herzen” (1912) and his articles on L. N. Tolstoy (1908–11) became vivid examples as well as methodological keys for the dialectical materialist interpretation of the social causality of art and for the struggle against vulgar sociologism. Adhering to the classification of art forms proposed by J. F. Schiller (On Naïve and Sentimental Poetry, 1795), the romantics drew a distinction between classical (ancient) and modern (Christian) art forms. In the mid-20th century mathematical methods, especially those of statistics, were widely adopted in literary theory and criticism, primarily in prosody, stylistics, textual criticism, and folklore study, where quantifiable structural segments can be isolated more easily. The theory of prose and stylistics developed within the framework of rhetoric. Literary Theory: An Anthology. Marxist study of literature was fruitfully developed in Russia by G. V. Plekhanov, V. V. Vorovskii, and A. V. Lunacharskii. Questions of partiinost’ and national character in literature and theoretical problems of socialist realism are being explored. In the last third of the 19th century the method of cultural history was further developed in Western European literary studies through the comparative historical and, especially, the psychological approach (the Frenchman E. Hennequin’s Scholarly Criticism, 1888; G. Brandes’ Principal Currents in Nineteenth-century European Literature, 1873–90). literary theory and criticism, along with other studies, broke away from philosophy and formed its own disciplines, including biobibliography (the Tablets of Callimachus, the prototype of the literary encyclopedia), textual criticism to determine the authenticity of a text, and textual commentary and the publication of texts (Zenodotus of Ephesus, Aristophanes of Byzantium, and later Aristarchus of Samothrace). This type of criticism may analyze the social content of a literary … Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists. Although Aristotle’s works Poetics, Rhetoric, and Metaphysics preserve the general aesthetic approach to art, they introduce several disciplines of literary study, including the theory of literature, stylistics, and especially poetics. It also interprets the literature of the past from the standpoint of modern social and artistic aims. However, the theory did not investigate the genesis of the poetic elements and often resulted in random and superficial comparisons. also did a great deal for the history of literature” (Poln. Marxist literary theories tend to focus on the representation of class conflict as well as the reinforcement of class distinctions through the medium of literature. Impressed by the successes of the natural sciences, the school of cultural history attempted to reduce causality and determinism in literary study to precise, tangible factors, such as H. Taine’s triune of race, milieu, and moment (History of English Literature, 1863–64). The study of literary links in Soviet literary theory and criticism has become a typological study of the uniformity of the literary process, which passes through relatively similar artistic stages in different countries.