clot See: Gallstones or Kidney and Bladder Stones. A type of particle accelerator in which charged particles are propelled by an alternating electric field between two large electrodes in a constant magnetic field created by two large magnets. pleural effusion scintigraphy epididymitis Each lung is irregularly conical in shape, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface following the inner curve of the ribs, an inner or mediastinal surface, a thin and sharp anterior border, and a thick and rounded posterior border. electronic detector treatment planning A specialized cell in the brain and nervous system that receives and sends electrical impulses through networks of connections. The name is apt, because the membrane is thick and strong, and normally firmly attached to the inner side of the skull. Secondary headaches are caused by an injury or underlying illness, such as bleeding in the brain, an infection or a brain tumor. peripheral vascular disease (PVD) Physicians that specialize in radiology are called radiologists. Abnormal tissue changes that often are found before cancer develops. A special type of catheter used in a vascular access procedure that is inserted inside a major vein for a period of weeks so that blood can be repeatedly drawn or medication and nutrients can be injected into the patient’s bloodstream on regular basis. They bind at the site of a wound to begin the clotting process. A tear in the wall of a blood vessel that allows blood under pressure to flow between the layers of the wall, making the tear worse. Computer calculation of the distance to the sound-reflecting or -absorbing surface plus the known orientation of the sound beam gives a two- or three-dimensional image. See also treatment planning. The balloon is then inflated to open the vessel, deflated and removed. The portion of the largest artery in the body that runs through the abdomen; it supplies oxygenated blood to the abdominal and pelvic organs and the legs. bone marrow Substances that neutralize body toxins and bacteria. Others are graduates of one-to-two-year dosimetry programs. A thin flexible tube with a tiny camera at the end used in a procedure called a sigmoidoscopy, which captures images of the interior of the lower large intestine and rectum. myelogram secondary hyperparathyroidism In the female, this consists of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and vulva. Non Hodgkin B cell lymphoma begins in B cells. A physician specializing in the examination of cells and tissues. A device similar to a heart pacemaker that is implanted under the skin and sends regular impulses of electrical energy through an electrode placed near the vagus nerve to prevent or reduce seizures. Font size: ACBR: American Chiropractic Board of Radiology: Rate it: AHRA: American Healthcare Radiology Administrators: Rate it: AHRA: American Hospital Radiology … They help evaluate the patient before treatment begins and talk to the patient about their treatment, the potential side effects and their management. Osteoporosis is primarily classified as an age-related decline in bone mineral density. thrombolytic therapy Manufacturer's name. One need only look at the organizations listed at to get a better appreciation for the various types of radiological exams that exist. An organ consisting of specialized cells that produces and sends hormones into the bloodstream, affecting various processes throughout the body. pleural space Radiation oncology nurses are registered nurses. Needles, tubes or other instruments are then inserted through the trocar be inserted to reach the treatment area. fibrocystic authentication simulation glioma The medical specialty concerned with the preservation, restoration, and development of form and function of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, spine, and associated structures by medical, surgical, and physical methods. Cramp-like pain that comes and goes, and is made worse by physical effort. endometrial biopsy For additional information see the Blood Clots page. Medical imaging, also known as radiology, is the field of medicine in which medical professionals recreate various images of parts of the body for diagnostic or treatment purposes. Signs include redness, heat, swelling and pain. A device that is implanted in the inferior vena cava, the large vein that returns blood from the legs to the heart, to prevent blood clots in the lower body from traveling to the heart or lungs. White blood cells of the lymphatic system, which is part of the body’s immune system. Also called core needle. The central part of the chest cavity, behind the sternum and between the two lungs. sedation, non-pharmacological The disk is connected to a catheter that is inserted into a large vein. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) One of two female reproductive glands that contain the ova, or eggs, that are released during ovulation; the fallopian tubes connect the ovaries and the uterus. In dentistry, a graft or insert set in or onto the tooth socket prepared for its insertion. colostomy A delivery technique for external beam therapy that uses special devices called collimators to regulate the intensity of the radiation beams, allowing different areas of a tumor and nearby tissues to receive different doses of radiation. margin Cobalt-60-based or photon radiation therapy machines are used exclusively to treat brain tumors and abnormalities. Of or relating to elated to a gland, a group of cells that secrete a substance needed by the body. endorectal MRI An aneurysm is a small area of weakness of the wall of an artery, which may be congenital, or less commonly, due to other causes, such as an infection. An electromagnetic wave of high energy and very short waveleng…. thyroid uptake They have extensive training in the safe use of radiation to treat disease. A sore or erosion in the lining of the stomach. This can be surgically created for hemodialysis (see dialysis arteriovenous fistula) but can also be caused by trauma. One of the two tubes extending from the uterus to the ovaries, providing a path by which the ovum, or egg, travels from the ovary to the uterus during ovulation. A family-centered system of care that attempts to keep chronically ill and terminal patients as comfortable and active as possible. radiographic A diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is placed in a large vein in the leg or arm and advanced to the heart to check for blood pressure within the heart, oxygen in the blood, and/or pumping ability of the heart muscle. carotid endarterectomy Also known as blood thinners. They oversee the work of the dosimetrist and help ensure that complex treatments are properly tailored for each patient. For details see the MR Angiography page. A condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes turn a yellowish color caused by abnormal levels of bilirubin, a yellow/orange pigment, in the bile and liver. Narrowing of an opening or passageway in the body. allogeneic A lump can be benign or malignant. A cylindrical bundle of nerves, lying within the vertebral column, that carries sensory messages from peripheral nerves to the brain, and motor impulses from the brain to the body's muscles. A minimally invasive procedure in which a thin needle or tube is inserted into the abdomen to remove excess fluid from the peritoneal cavity. intracranial pressure (ICP) radiologist: [ ra″de-ol´ah-jist ] a physician specializing in radiology. Also known as radiation therapy. intussusception See red blood cells. gene therapy Example: 1. enzyme An often fatal condition that results when brain tissue, fluid or blood vessels are pushed outside the skull. Human genes that belong to a class of genes known as tumor suppressors. varicocele An x-ray image intensifier. The use of abbreviations and acronyms in medical records and reports may lead to errors in patient … staging A group of conditions in which the stretching or tearing of the pelvic floor leads to one or more of the pelvic organs falling out of position (also called prolapse), incontinence, pelvic pain and/or constipation. A form of external beam therapy that more precisely conforms the radiation to the tumor, allowing a higher radiation dose to be safely delivered. The largest gland of the body, lying beneath the diaphragm; it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1 to 2 kg (2 to 4 pounds). deep sedation For additional information see the Anemia page. Surgical removal of part or all of an organ or an area of diseased tissue. Synthetic materials that are suspended in liquid and injected into a blood vessel to form a permanent barrier to blood flow. gallbladder A material used to block off blood flow through a vessel. See also definitive treatment. Cosmic radiation and terrestrial radiation vary with location. laser excisional biopsy This includes diseases of the arteries, veins, and lymph vessels and blood disorders that affect circulation. A medical specialty and the study of radiation treatment of abnormal tissue (nonmalignant or cancerous) through the use of x-rays or radionuclides. It decays within 24 hours, leaving no residual radiation. Also called virtual colonoscopy. This type of stroke occurs when a blood clot that has formed elsewhere in the body breaks away and travels to a blood vessel in the brain, blocking the flow of oxygen-carrying blood. Confined, short-term elevation or irregular fluid-filled spot on the skin, slightly reddened, often changing in size and shape and extending to adjacent areas. conformal radiation therapy appendicitis A vascular treatment technique that uses catheter-guided balloons to open narrowed blood vessels. atherectomy regurgitation secure sockets layer (SSL) CONTINUE SCROLLING OR … vein stripping brainstem stereotactic radiosurgery urethra A thin layer of tissue that lines the pleural cavity, the space that surrounds the lungs and lies underneath the chest wall. A stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in which the immune system is so badly damaged the body is unable to fight off infections and disease. Also called an EMR (Electronic Medical Record) or EHR (Electronic Health Record). 58.93320; a bioelement and a constituent of vitamin B12; certain of its compounds are pigments, e.g., cobalt blue. Masses of fiber and muscle tissue in the wall of the uterus, also known as leiomyomas or fibroid tumors. BRCA1 and BRCA 2 See sedation, non-pharmacological. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance may also be used to image the breast. An isotope that changes to a more stable state by emitting radiation. Dosimetrists work with the doctor and the medical physicist to choose the treatment plan that is just right for each patient. oophorectomy MR enterography A substance that is used medically to relive pain and/or produce a state of drowsiness or sleep. The space within the uterus. Pap test Situated within, occurring within, or administered by entering a bone. Headaches that occur in groups, or clusters, over a period of several weeks or months separated by headache-free periods of months or years. A slender rod of flexible material, with blunt bulbous tip, used for exploring sinuses, fistulas, other cavities, or wounds. endometrium Access controls that restrict access to a system to only authorized users; access control assigns right and privileges of users to resources via single sign-on databases; auto logoff to prevent someone other than the valid user from continuing a session; physical access control for critical computers to prevent console-based malicious attacks, power interruptions or other threats to security of the systems. nephropathy Color Doppler uses a computer to convert the Doppler measurements into an array of colors. A stone, calcification or calcific deposit in the appendix. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) When either of these happens, brain cells begin to die and brain damage occurs. There are two types of needle electrodes: a simple straight needle; and a straight, hollow needle that contains several retractable electrodes that extend when needed. An asthma-like syndrome due to muscle spasms in the airways. After all, the Greeks were the founders of modern medicine. lymph A device that projects radiographic (x-ray) images in a movie-like sequence onto a screen monitor. A flexible plastic tube (a catheter) inserted into the bladder to provide continuous urinary drainage. Also called biologic therapy An x-ray examination of the lymphatic system. contrast medium CAD is computer software that is used to highlight suspicious features on an image and bring them to the attention of the radiologist. diabetes (diabetes mellitus) drug-eluting stent See the Linear Accelerator page for more information. pharyngeal Cryotherapy is a minimally invasive treatment that uses extreme cold to freeze and destroy diseased tissue, including cancer cells. metabolic rate Across or through the vagina (the genital canal in the female, extending from the uterus to the vulva). A hollow needle with a sharply pointed end that is inserted into a blood vessel, body cavity or bone. Hardening of the arteries; types generally recognized are: atherosclerosis, Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis. Through a galaxy of techniques, they can treat certain conditions percutaneously (through the skin) that might otherwise require surgery. Establishment of a new opening into the stomach. See radioactive iodine I-131. Also called EKG or ECG. Radiant energy from waves or subatomic particles. Damage to or disease of the kidney. inferior vena cava (IVC) filter A test result that indicates cancer is present when it is not. A ballooning out of a segment of blood vessel caused by disease or weakness in the vessel wall. Denoting electromagnetic rays at higher frequency than the violet end of the visible spectrum. contrast material local anesthesia non-pharmacological sedation glandular These medical terms will keep you feeling smart next time you visit the doctor or watch Grey’s Anatomy. Medication prescribed for diabetics to help the body respond better to its own insulin and decrease glucose production by the liver, ultimately helping to control a patient's blood sugar level. aneurysm A slimy substance secreted by glands in mucous membranes. allograft A physician trained in the diagnostic and/or therapeutic use of x-rays and radionuclides, radiation physics, and biology; a diagnostic radiologist may also be trained in diagnostic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging and applicable physics. See contrast material. Graves' disease polyp Visual examination of the inner surface of the colon by means of a lighted, flexible tubular instrument inserted into the colon through the rectum. interferon See local anesthetic ("numbing agent"). therapeutic radiology A paranasal hepatobiliary system low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) Patient information, including radiological images, lab test results, medications, clinical history, etc., stored on electronic media. Paget disease Stenosis of an artery may reduce blood flow through the vessel. An immobile mass of stool that does not easily pass from the rectum. Removal of tissue or suspensions of cells from living patients through a small needle for diagnostic examination. A small reservoir or chamber about the size of a quarter that is surgically implanted under the skin near the abdomen. artifact A protein normally found in the tissue of developing babies, but can also be produced by certain types of cancers in adults. Passing Percentage: 100% sonography diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) Movement of a solution through the membrane of a cell. Radiology: The medical specialty concerned with radiation for the diagnosis and treatment of disease, including both ionizing radiation such as X-rays and nonionizing radiation such as ultrasound. milliroentgens See cryosurgery. L A quarter-sized disk that is placed either surgically or by an interventional radiologist just beneath the skin in the chest or abdomen. The Gamma Knife delivers 201 beams of highly focused gamma rays to the treatment site. laceration menstrual cycle Sperm (or spermatozoa) is the male reproductive cell carried by semen through the penis when a man ejaculates. leiomyoma acetaminophen F CT enterography is a special type of computed tomography (CT) imaging performed with contrast material to produce images of the small intestine. stem cell transplant breast coil Radiology The branch of medicine originating from the use of X-rays for diagnosis now called clinical radiology. Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and helps to cushion and protect them. Radiography of the the secretory duct of the testicle (vas deferens), to determine patency (the state of being freely open), by injecting contrast medium into its opening either through the urethra or by incision into the vas deferens. This surgery is only used for those with severe emphysema. See the Radiation Dose in X-ray and CT Exam page for additional information. endovenous ablation A type of radiation therapy in which the entire body receives radiation prior to chemotherapy and a stem cell or bone marrow transplant.